Objectives of the Plan
Urban systematic mobility is today one of the main topics of interest for institutions and companies. In fact, its better organization can contribute to reducing the levels of congestion of urban traffic and, at the same time, those of air pollution, with consequent advantages both at a social and economic level. In accordance with the Ronchi Decree of 1998, companies with more than 300 employees in the same workplace or with globally more than 800 resources, must annually draft a Plan of the Home-Work Movements (PSCL).
The Home-Work Displacement Plan consists in the development, implementation and control of an optimal set of measures, taking into account the conditions of the specific area (employee mobility behavior and needs, transport planning tools, the political situation of transport of the urban area in which the companies are located) and general objectives to be achieved (reduction of energy consumption, atmospheric and noise pollution, greenhouse gas emissions and transfer of demand from individual to collective means) for remodulation of the Home-Work journeys of employees.
Mobility Management is therefore a fundamentally oriented approach to managing the demand for mobility, which develops and implements concepts and strategies aimed at ensuring the mobility of people and the transport of goods in an efficient manner, with regard to social and environmental objectives.
The proposed intervention strategies are called “soft strategies” as they are mainly based on the activities of: management, communication and information.
Overview of the Unipol offices in Milan and the investigation phase
The framework of company knowledge is obtained through the questionnaire dedicated to the Mobility Manager and allows to identify a series of parameters such as: number of parking spaces, possible rates, number of employees, contracts and working hours, other commercial services (shuttles, company buses), incentives, discounts, agreements, etc.
For larger companies, of course, the overview is disaggregated by location. In particular, in the Unipol Group’s PSCL, we have 7 offices, 3 of which are located in the industrial center of San Donato Milanese and have ample parking facilities, which tend to facilitate private transport.
The survey conducted on the Milan and SDM sites obtained a rather high compliance rate, even higher than 65%. Through the geolocation of employees who responded to the questionnaire, it is therefore possible to calculate a series of mobility indicators (modal split, kilometers traveled, pollutant emissions, propensity to change, etc.) In order to optimize the systematic mobility of the Unipol Lombard Group the capital has about 2000 employees.
Employee mobility habits
The analysis of the responses provided by the employees to the questionnaires gives us the opportunity to identify their mobility habits, especially in terms of the mode of transport used (in addition to leaving home, arrival at work, etc.). In the Unipol offices of Milan and San Donato Milanese, we note a great use of private cars, followed by local public transport (TPL). This trend, especially in the industrial sites, is due to two fundamental reasons: the wide availability of free parking lots and the high accessibility to the TPL (railway and underground stations). With the aim of reducing the use of the private car, one can therefore act (among the various modes of soft intervention):
- On the TPL, ensuring even greater accessibility by covering the station-venue distance with company shuttles or through a convention subscription campaign.
- On the carpooling service, through a management system (app) and targeted parking management, reserving a right amount of parking to carpoolers.
Propensity for modal change
The propensity for modal change turns out to be a fundamental indicator to the use of the TPL importance in the definition phase of the project interventions. In particular, users who have declared to use the private car or the motorcycle are asked to express a favorable / unfavorable opinion on the use of sustainable transport modes for different incentives. We report the propensity to use the company shuttle, noting how an adequate and refined accessibility study can optimize the use of the service, through a new relocation of the stops in order to increase employee satisfaction. In detail, the propensity for modal change is analyzed with respect to:
- Local Public Transport
- Car Pooling
- Corporate bus
As shown in the figure, the main reasons for disinterest of users in the public transport service are the reliability and the cost of the subscription, on which the company can allocate incentives.
Externalities produced in the environment
The surveys conducted, allow us to obtain, in addition to the modal split, also the OD pairs of the employees who have declared domicile and work place, thus being able to obtain an estimate of the kilometers traveled annually (home-work) with each mode of transport. Taking advantage of the simulation model implemented in the MobilityManager software, we can estimate the main polluting emissions (CO, CO2, VOC, NOx, PM10, etc.) with the sophisticated Copert IV model. The car turns out to be the means that provokes the greatest emissions for the home-work mobility of the Unipol Group’s Milan offices.